Created By : Naaz Fatima

Reviewed By : Rajashekhar Valipishetty

Last Updated : Apr 10, 2023

Free Drift Velocity Calculator is used to find the drift velocity of electrons easily in a less amount of time. Simply enter current flowing through the material, cross-sectional area and number density of charged particles in the input fields and tap on the calculate button to check the average drift velocity at the output section.

Choose a Calculation
Number Density:
Drift Velocity:

How to Calculate Drift Velocity?

Below provided is the simple step by step process to find the drift velocity of charged particles. Follow these steps and check the result.

  • Obtain the current, number density of electrons and area
  • Multiply the area with the number density.
  • Divide the current flow by the product to get the drift velocity value.

Drift Velocity Equation

An electric current is a movement of electric charge in a wire. Drift velocity is the velocity of the free electrons that moves from the positive end of the conductor due to the applied electric field. The SI unit of drift velocity is m/s.

The drift velocity equation can be defined as

v = I/(nAQ)

The formula to find current is

I = nvAQ

The formula to get area is A = I/(nvQ)


v is the drift velocity of the electrons

I is the current flowing through the conductor

n is the number of free electrons

A is the cross-section area of the conductor

Q is the charge of an electron

The number density in the calculator is nothing but the number of electrons per unit volume of the conductor.


Question: A current of 1 A exists in a copper wire of cross-sectional area 1.0 mm2. Assuming that the number density of electrons in wire is 12 x 1028 carriers/m3, find the drift velocity of electrons?


Given that

Current flowing through wire I = 1 A

Cross-sectional area A = 1 mm2 = 1 x 10-6 m2

Number density = 12 x 1028 carriers/m3

v = I/(nAQ)

= 1/(10-6 x 12 x 1028)

= 5.208 x 10-5 m/s.

Therefore, the drift velocity of charged particles is 5.208 x 10-5 m/s.

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Frequently Asked Questions on Drift Velocity Calculator

1. What does affect the drift velocity?

The drift velocity depends on the current flowing through the conductor, the number of electrons, the charge of each electron and the cross-sectional area of the conductor. It is directly proportional to the current and inversely proportional to the remaining quantities.

2. What is drift velocity?

In simple words, drift velocity can be defined as the average velocity reached by electrons in a material due to an electric field.

3. What is the formula of average drift velocity?

The formula to calculate the drift velocity of charged particles in a material is v = I/(nAQ). Here, I is the current flow, n is the number of electrons, A is the cross-sectional area and Q is the charge of electrons.

4. How to find the drift velocity of electrons using the calculator?

Students have to provide a current, cross-sectional area of the conductor, the number of density of electrons to obtain the drift velocity of the charged particle as output in a short span of time.